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About this Item: Berlin, Apollo-Verlag, o. Band 1. Band 2. Dancing, however, contrary to marching in lockstep or synchronized working to a beat, requires a sophisticated hierarchical perception of rhythm Fitch, Therefore it is, in our opinion, very unlikely that dancing simply constitutes a mere by-product of entrainment. Why is the impulse to dance so powerful? Contrary to other scholars of his time, Darwin , p. Sexual attractiveness has been since long hypothesized to be the main evolutionary function of dance but has become a scientific research focus only recently Dissanayake, ; Oberzaucher and Grammer, ; Dean et al.
Rhythmicity has been proposed as an indicator of mate quality van den Broek and Todd, Furthermore, dancers are able to communicate subtle non-verbal signals Oberzaucher and Grammer, ; Hanna, ; Grammer et al. Motion alone can effectively communicate emotion, charisma and sex appeal Oberzaucher and Grammer, To say it with the words of Hanna , p. Thus, dance and sex may be conceived as inseparable even when sexual expression is unintended. The dancing body is symbolic expression that may embody many notions. Among these are romance, desire, and sexual climax.
Movement quality not only seems to indicate mate quality, but also the interest of a potential partner, which could denote the probability of successful mating Grammer et al. Synchronization is a behavior not limited to humans Ravignani et al.
It may have a direct effect on predators or reflect the general advantages of cooperation via positive social interactions, a finding also observed in macaques Nagasaka et al. Rhythm enables the synchronization of s of dancing human beings such as in a rock concert Canetti, The dynamics of rhythmic synchronization differ fundamentally from that of a swarm: a swarm is coordinated by an energy wave passing very quickly but consecutively through many individuals sensing the movement of the adjacent individual.
This confounds a predator on which individual prey to catch. Humans, presenting the simultaneous movement of a stomping crowd screaming and armed with fire, may delude a predator by producing the impression of being a homogeneous enormous animal which would be too powerful to attack. This effect may be taken advantage of also in hunting battues Hagen and Bryant, ; Bispham, ; Trevarthen, ; Phillips-Silver and Keller, ; Repp and Su, It has recently been argued that self-generated sounds of locomotion and ventilation interfere with the perception of the surroundings.
The synchronization of the movement of a number of individuals would thus increase the duration of the intervals where the surroundings can be heard better Larsson, This means that synchronization would constitute a by-product of hunting abilities. To prove this hypothesis one would expect that traditional hunters follow animals to hunt in a kind of lockstep, an observation that has not been provided so far.
A pivotal fitness strategy of hominids is cooperation Nowak, ; Nowak et al.
Drumming and dancing are profoundly social activities van Noorden, In many musical cultures the dancer is a percussionist at the same time, as it may be observed not only in traditional societies but also on ancient Egyptian and Greek frescoes or in actual tap-dancing Caballero, ; Redmond, In many societies dancing is an integral part of important group ceremonies such as initiation rites or weddings.
In hunter-gatherer societies, groups may be limited to 40—50 people. By dancing, future spouses demonstrate their ability, strength and elegance not only to the future partner but also to other members of the group which will admit the spouse as a new member. In other words, promised spouses need also to catch the eyes of the mothers and fathers in law or other group members who have a say. This latter aspect has, to our knowledge, not yet been explored.
Musicians delight dancers. They offer the fundament for the joy of the dancers. Music and especially rhythm constitute a deeply rooted signaling system for extra-verbal communication evoking emotional reactions of other potentially cooperating individuals Bryant, Joint drumming facilitates the synchronization in preschool children Kirschner and Tomasello, Interpersonal synchrony increases helpfulness already in 14 month-old toddlers and the promotion of prosocial behavior by interpersonal rhythmic synchrony has been confirmed in cross-cultural studies in 4-year-old children as compared to matched controls Kirschner and Tomasello, ; Cirelli et al.
The emotional impact of the synchronization of many individuals in military drill has impressively been described by McNeill There is evidence of intra- and intergroup aggression in primates such as chimpanzees de Waal, , and hominids Kelly, ; Zollikofer et al. Hominids possessed spears for more than , years Thieme, The advent of tools of potential use as weapons among hominids required even more effective reconciliation means Wilkins et al.
To say it with the words of Zollikofer et al. Intragroup aggression in primate societies must be understood as one specific behavioral option in a complex network of social interactions, which is typically balanced by active reconciliatory behavior […]. This ability is confirmed by the relative scarceness of traces of violence in prehistoric bone findings as compared to skeletons from historic times Haas and Piscitelli, Dancing as an effective reconciliatory means has been well-described among potentially hostile Andaman groups by Kelly Dancing enabled to appease our most dangerous enemies: other men of other tribes or even of the own group Kelly, ; Evans Pim, Similar to symbolic fights present in many non-human animal species, dance may serve for getting to know who is stronger before undertaking a fight, thus reducing the risk of injury and preventing casualties Evans Pim, As an actual example, ghetto dance battles may contribute to avoid deadly duels McDermott and Hauser, Nietzsche, — argued that he would not believe in any god unless this god was able to dance.
Although, trance may in some cultures be also reached without dancing, rhythmical techniques including breathing, hyperventilation and dance, as in the Indonesian island of Bali, are the means which are used in the majority of societies for entering trance.
Some historical and actual examples for trance dances include the medieval European St. Trance dance serves as catharsis reached through ecstasy. An ancestor, a spirit or a god drives the dancer; the dancer is possessed.
Condition: Used. View basket. Pieces ; For violin, piano ; Scores featuring the violin ; Scores featuring the piano ; For 2 players ; For violin, organ ; Scores featuring the organ. Jahrgang Nr. Autoren: Published by Mainz, B. In Almrausch moved, enlarged, and improved the swing set and created a playground. MUSIK -
Pre-Christian religious mask dances are the origin of present time Carnival traditions. Dancers moving like puppets on the strings such as in Indian Kathakali and Japanese Kabuki are the precursors of theater and pantomime. In this respect, it is interesting that a 15,year-old marionette puppet with moveable limbs has been found in a grave of an adult man believed to be a shaman in Brno, Czech Republic Williams, It is still matter of debate whether religion is an adaptive complex itself or a by-product of adaptive behaviors in other non- religious contexts. In a pre-verbal context the importance of dance for individual and collective memorizing cannot be overemphasized.
Dance in many traditional societies is an instrument to memorize hunting techniques and to preserve traditions by telling stories about the past of the community. Since the mirror motor neurons of who observes dancers are activated dance is an excellent method to train children and adolescents and to communicate experiences and skills which are later internalized by imitation Rizzolatti et al.
However, the evolution of language requires an underlying rhythmic and gestural understanding, i. Rhythm perception enables to discern words and is necessary to codify and decode language.
The observation of a dancer aids to recapitulate and decode gestures Patel and Daniele, ; Patel, ; Hausen et al. Human babies are, however, especially immature at birth as compared to other animals. Therefore, human infants may require more specific soothing efforts such as rocking. To rock the baby one needs free arms. Soothing a baby by rocking is probably a human universal which, however, has not been investigated in this respect.
A recent study comparing cultural effects on rocking a baby for soothing showed more similarities than differences between different cultures Vinall et al.